Everything about Bologna Process

Bologna City

The agreement that we are going to talk about in this article it takes its name from a city in Italy called Bologna. Bologna is the largest city in the province of Bologna, the seventh-largest city in Italy, and is located in the north of the country.

Bologna Process

European countries have concluded agreements between their universities to promote education in their universities and to attract international students and progress in scientific fields in the world, and to educate themselves according to the standards mentioned in the agreement.

One of these agreements is the Bologna Agreement, which was signed in 1999 for the first time between 29 European countries to improve the academic level of European universities.

After the conclusion of the Bologna Agreement between European countries, the universities of these countries were obliged to improve the education in their universities according to the standards of this agreement and to provide more educational facilities to their students. Among the great advantages and laws of this treaty, the following can be mentioned.

Validity of documents of the countries under the Bologna Process

The countries that were originally members of the Bologna Process were 29 and only European countries were part of the treaty. Later, with the addition of other European and non-European countries, the number of these countries reached 47.

The important point here is that universities that award a degree to their students in any of the treaty countries are approved in all of the treaty countries, and therefore any of these countries. After graduating, he can study and continue working in European countries with his degree.

University courses according to the Bologna Process

According to the Bologna Process, university education must be done at three levels: bachelor, masters, and doctorate. The rules set out in this agreement for each of the university degrees are set out below.


The minimum time required for the bachelor’s degree is 3 years, and if the courses are not completed, the student can continue their studies at the university for up to 5 years. The number of units passed in this section must be at least 180 units.

Master’s degree

This course lasts for four to six semesters in the universities under this agreement. The total number of units is at least 120 units.


In the doctoral program, considering that each specialty has its own time, but at least four years are also considered for the doctoral program.

Ease of attracting foreign students after the contract

After the signing of the Bologna Agreement, it was easier to attract international students to many European countries, and as a result, the number of students going to European universities increased after the agreement.

Language of study according to the Bologna Agreement

Regarding the language of study in these countries, in addition to the official language of the country, there must also be English.

Retaining talented students in the country

With the conclusion of the Bologna Process between some countries, students were able to go to other countries under this process to do some research work and study for a few semesters, and then return to their country after completing it. Therefore, this agreement caused the circulation of top student talents in these countries, instead of brain drain.

 Bologna Process Countries

The countries that have so far become members of the Bologna Process and have set the conditions for their universities and standards under this agreement include:

United Kingdom, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Italy, Sweden, Spain, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Slovakia, Albania, Russia, Andorra, Portugal, Estonia, Armenia, Norway, Austria, Germany, Azerbaijan, Netherlands, Belgium, Bosnia And Herzegovina, Belarus, Luxembourg, Bulgaria, Croatia, Liechtenstein, Cyprus, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Latvia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.

As you can see, Turkey has a full membership since 2001 of the Bologna Process among other countries in the world. The impact that this agreement has had on Turkish universities has led to the improvement of educational standards in this country, adding English to the formal education of courses in Turkish universities, and as a result, international volunteers to study in Turkey are attracted to universities.

Top universities of Bologna member

Universities that comply with the standards of this agreement and have a world-class ranking are introduced in this section. This means that if other universities in the world have correctly complied with the standards of the Bologna Process, they can approach the level of the following universities.


The UK has some of the top universities in the world, most of which rank below ten. The most famous universities in this country include:

The University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, and the University of Manchester.


The universities of Ankara,the university of Istanbul, Koç university, Sabanci university, Ghazi, Hacettepe university, Akdeniz, Yildiz Technik, Bilkent are the most famous and most in demand universities in Turkey. The rank of some universities in this country is below one thousand and some below five hundred and three hundred in the world.


German universities are ranked below five hundred in the world. The most famous of them include:

The universities are Berlin, Bonn and Munich.


It includes the University of Paris, the Sorbonne University of Paris, the Paris University of Research and Communication Sciences and the Polytechnic University of Paris. French universities are often ranked below a thousand and in some cases below a hundred.


The University of Milan, the University of Rome, the University of Bologna, the University of Florence, the University of Pisa and the University of Sapinza are some of the most famous and top universities in the country. The global ranking of these universities is often below five hundred and under three hundred in the world.


Chinhua, Wuhan, Peking, Fudan and Zhejiang universities are some of the most famous universities in China. The global ranking of these universities is below five hundred and in some cases below three hundred.


The largest country in the world is famous for its public universities. The universities of St. Petersburg, Siberia, Rostov and the University of Moscow are among the top universities in Russia. The country’s universities are often ranked below a thousand.


It has the universities of Szeged, Debrecen, Patch, Budapest, Semelweiz and Pannun University. Some rank below a thousand and some a thousand to two thousand.


Denmark is another European country that is a member of the Bologna Treaty. Its top universities include:

The universities of information technology are Copenhagen, Aalborg, Aarhus and the University of Southern Denmark.


It has the following universities with rankings below 300, under two hundred and under one hundred in the world. Lund University, Royal Institute of KTH Technology, Chalmers University of Technology and Stockholm University in Sweden


It is also a member of the Bologna Treaty among European countries. The country’s universities are often ranked below five hundred. The country’s top universities include:

The Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, the Federal Polytechnic Institute in Luzal, the University of Zurich, the University of Geneva, the University of Lausanne, the University of Basel and the University of Bern.


The Netherlands has two top universities with a ranking below 100 in the world. These two universities are Amsterdam University and Delph University of Technology. Other universities in the country, including Eindhoven and Utrecht, are ranked below 500 in the world.


Spanish universities are also among the top universities in the world. The world ranking of the country’s universities varies from one hundred to five hundred. The following universities are among the top universities in this country. Complutense University of Madrid, Autonomous University of Madrid, University of Barcelona, ​​University of Catalonia and University of Valencia

The world’s top universities are located in these countries, and other Bologna Process member states are also working to raise the global ranking of their universities and attract more international volunteers.

Final Word

Following the success of the Bologna Universities, international students set the standard as a benchmark for their destination universities, prompting other countries to join the Process.

Thank you for being with us until the end of the article.

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